## What is TPS?

In the blockchain world, transactions per second (TPS) metrics measure the number of transactions a blockchain can process in a second.

For example, Ethereum processes around 12-15 transactions per second on average, while Bitcoin processes roughly 6-8.

## Types of TPS

Not all TPS metrics are the same. There are 3 most common types of TPS:

Real-time TPS

Max Recorded TPS

Max Theoretical TPS

### Real-time TPS

Real-time TPS shows how many transactions per second the blockchain is processing. It’s probably the most important of all three metrics because it is based on real-time blockchain data and can’t be inflated. It shows the adoption level of the blockchain and its actual throughput.

Real-time TPS was one of the first metrics we tracked, so it goes first on our dashboard.

### Max Recorded TPS

Max recorded TPS indicates the peak TPS blockchain has ever reached. It shows how many transactions a blockchain can process during times of high workload. Typically, it happens when the market is volatile, and a lot of people want to transact at the same time.

### Max Theoretical TPS

Max theoretical TPS shows how many transactions per second the blockchain is theoretically capable of handling. To calculate this metric, divide the block size measured in gas or bytes by the size of the smallest transaction possible. In most blockchains, the least possible transaction is a transfer of a native token.

For example, the Ethereum block size is 30 million gas, the block time is 12 seconds, and the transfer of Ether takes 21,000 of gas. It means each block can contain 30 million / 21,000 = 1428 transactions. So, the maximum theoretical TPS is 1428 transactions / 12s = 119 transactions per second. Of course, the reality is often different due to the different block times, block sizes, and other real-world nuances.

## Real blockchain TPS

At Chainspect, we track TPS for all our blockchains in real time and show it on the dashboard and individual chain pages. For example, here is the Ethereum chain page.

TPS and Max TPS are dynamic metrics, so check them regularly to get the full picture.

The following metrics are relevant on Apr 3, 2024. For real-time metrics just click on your favorite blockchain to open its chain page or go to the dashboard.

- Aeternity TPS is 0.09 transactions per second

Aeternity Max TPS is 9.29 transactions per second

Aeternity Max Theoretical TPS is 1,333 transactions per second - AirDAO TPS is 0.2 transactions per second

AirDAO Max TPS is 0.5 transactions per second

AirDAO Max Theoretical TPS 309 transactions per second - Algorand TPS is 16.24 transactions per second

Algorand Max TPS is 3,227 transactions per second

Algorand Max Theoretical TPS is 9,384 transactions per second - Arbitrum TPS is 21.32 transactions per second

Arbitrum Max TPS is 380 transactions per second

Arbitrum Max Theoretical TPS is 40,000 transactions per second - Arthera TPS is 0.92 transactions per second

Arthera Max TPS is 112 transactions per second

Arthera Max Theoretical TPS is 9,804 transactions per second - Avalanche TPS is 3.73 transactions per second

Avalanche Max TPS is 92.74 transactions per second

Avalanche Max Theoretical TPS is 357 transactions per second - Base TPS is 32.36 transactions per second

Base Max TPS is 135 transactions per second

Base Max Theoretical TPS is 1,429 transactions per second - Bitcoin TPS is 8.09 transactions per second

Bitcoin Max TPS is 10.92 transactions per second

Bitcoin Max Theoretical TPS is 7 transactions per second - BNB Chain TPS is 66.72 transactions per second

BNB Chain Max TPS is 1,731 transactions per second

BNB Chain Max Theoretical TPS is 2,222 transactions per second - BNB Greenfield TPS is 0.82 transactions per second

BNB Greenfield Max TPS is 3.06 transactions per second

BNB Greenfield Max Theoretical TPS is 500 transactions per second - Cardano TPS, Max TPS and Max Theoretical TPS is coming soon
- Celo TPS is 4.25 transactions per second

Celo Max TPS is 268 transactions per second

Celo Max Theoretical TPS is 476 transactions per second - Cronos TPS is 3.84 transactions per second

Cronos Max TPS is 142 transactions per second

Cronos Max Theoretical TPS is 510 transactions per second - Crust TPS is 0.0006 transactions per second

Crust Max TPS is 0.01 transactions per second

Crust Max Theoretical TPS is transactions per second transactions per second - eCash TPS is 0.01 transactions per second

eCash Max TPS is 31.24 transactions per second

eCash Max Theoretical TPS is 34.95 transactions per second - Ethereum TPS is 14.81 transactions per second

Ethereum Max TPS is 62.34 transactions per second

Ethereum Max Theoretical TPS is 119 transactions per second - Fantom TPS is 2.86 transactions per second

Fantom Max TPS is 181 transactions per second

Fantom Max Theoretical TPS is 1,476 transactions per second - Gnosis Chain TPS is 1.8 transactions per second

Gnosis Chain Max TPS is 80.9 transactions per second

Gnosis Chain Theoretical Max TPS is 156 transactions per second - Hedera TPS is 1,544 transactions per second

Hedera Max TPS is 3,287 transactions per second

Hedera Max Theoretical TPS is 10,000 transactions per second - Integritee TPS is 0.0014 transactions per second

Integritee Max TPS is 0.04 transactions per second

Integritee Max Theoretical TPS is 1,500 transactions per second - IoTeX TPS is 0.31 transactions per second

IoTeX Max TPS is 629 transactions per second

IoTeX Max Theoretical TPS is 1,000 transactions per second - Klaytn TPS is 6.22 transactions per second

Klaytn Max TPS is 3,142 transactions per second

Klaytn Max Theoretical TPS is coming soon - Moonbeam TPS is 2.12 transactions per second

Moonbeam Max TPS is 15.31 transactions per second

Moonbeam Max Theoretical TPS is 58.4 transactions per second - opBNB TPS is 251 transactions per second

opBNB Max TPS is 371 transactions per second

opBNB Max Theoretical TPS is 4,762 transactions per second - Optimism TPS is 9.14 transactions per second

Optimism Max TPS is 32.87 transactions per second

Optimism Max Theoretical TPS is 714 transactions per second - Polkadex TPS is 0.0036 transactions per second

Polkadex Max TPS is 0.45 transactions per second

Polkadex Max Theoretical TPS is 1,500 transactions per second - Polkadot TPS is 0.2 transactions per second

Polkadot Max TPS is 112 transactions per second

Polkadot Max Theoretical TPS is 1,500 transactions per second - Polygon TPS is 45.3 transactions per second

Polygon Max TPS is 282 transactions per second

Polygon Max Theoretical TPS is 649 transactions per second - Scroll TPS is 2.59 transactions per second

Scroll Max TPS is 25.86 transactions per second

Scroll Max Theoretical TPS is 136 transactions per second - Sirius TPS is 0.01 transactions per second

Sirius Max TPS is 0.03 transactions per second

Sirius Max Theoretical TPS is 6,279 transactions per second - Solana TPS is 877 transactions per second

Solana Max TPS is 1,608 transactions per second

Solana Max Theoretical TPS is 65,000 transactions per second - Starknet TPS is 1.7 transactions per second

Starknet Max TPS is 31.15 transactions per second

Starknet Max Theoretical TPS is 238 transactions per second - Telos TPS is 2.46 transactions per second

Telos Max TPS is 7.5 transactions per second

Telos Max Theoretical TPS is 15,200 transactions per second - Tron TPS is 95.94 transactions per second

Tron Max TPS is 236 transactions per second

Tron Max Theoretical TPS is 2,516 transactions per second - Wanchain TPS is 0.05 transactions per second

Wanchain Max TPS is 147 transactions per second

Wanchain Max Theoretical TPS is 433 transactions per second - Zeitgeist TPS is 0.0003 transactions per second

Zeitgeist Max TPS is 0.09 transactions per second

Zeitgeist Max Theoretical TPS is 1,500 transactions per second

## Blockchains vs Visa and Mastercard

To put things into perspective, Visa can handle roughly 24,000 TPS, while Mastercard can handle “only” around 5,000 TPS, according to BitDegree.

Keep in mind it’s not a TPS that both Visa and Mastercard typically handle in real-world scenarios. Moreover, Visa and Mastercard are highly centralized systems, so the difference in TPS between them and blockchains is understandable.